Muslim women were clearly elevated as categorically pure in this discourse and were increasingly provided the greatest access to bathhouses. Oxford University Press, It is the right of every Muslim to enter every bathhouse without consideration of [his] poverty or wealth. He noted the irony that Christian women were forbidden to wear the color green before an Ottoman judge, yet felt free to wear whatever they wanted to church. University of California Press, The defendant worked in a perfume shop directly in front of the neighborhood bathhouse, well positioned to sell his fragrances to bathers.
Bathing was also allowed for both Jewish and Christian women on Saturdays at the al-Bakhkhash bathhouse, indicating a less rigid segregation policy.
The Ottoman Sultan and his Haseki (favourite wife)
An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Middle East Studies Association Conference Yale University Press, Muslim women were clearly elevated as categorically pure in this discourse and were increasingly provided the greatest access to bathhouses. Historians have documented a broader upsurge in regulations targeting women and religious minorities throughout the empire during the 18th century. Studies in Honor of Aharon Layish, ed. Many of the norms concerning bathhouse usage were publicly known, and occasionally the guilds appeared in court to reaffirm those norms when they were transgressed by patrons or bathkeepers. Prohibitive regulations and purity laws work to define social order by delineating the sacred from the profane.