All mRNA transcripts expressed in meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells are subjected to some degree of translational repression and there are many examples whereby genes transcribed earlier on in germ cell development are translationally repressed until the proteins are required during spermatid elongation, reviewed in Spermatogonial stem cells SSC divide to renew the stem cell population and to provide spermatogonia that are committed to the spermatogenic differentiation pathway. In boys, testicular enlargement is the first physical manifestation of puberty and is termed gonadarche. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. The epididymis secretes an intraluminal environment that suppresses sperm motility until ejaculation. Another important mechanism that has evolved within germ cells for the control of transposable elements involves piRNAs. Thus the cyclic nature of spermatogenesis enables continual sperm production within the testis.
FSH is necessary for sperm production spermatogenesisand LH stimulates the production of testosterone, which is necessary to continue the process of spermatogenesis.
Human Physiology/The male reproductive system
Further, they suggest that many of these precursors are situated in close proximity to the surface of the seminiferous tubules. The term is also applied to the process that leads to this state. While the modulation of DNA methylation of the epigenome of germ cells is a major feature of embryonic testis development see aboveit is worth noting that epigenetic modifications of the DNA in developing postnatal germ cells is also important for successful spermatogenesis, see During fertilization, the sperm's mitochondria gets destroyed by the egg cell, and this means only the mother is able to provide the baby's mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA, which has an important application in tracing maternal ancestry. For example, genetic ablation of the DNA repair protein PMS2 results in very few synaptonemal complexes forming and improper homologous chromosome pairing